|Microoptic grating multiplexers and optical isolators for fiber-optic communications|
|IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (Volume:16 , Issue: 1, Page(s):11 - 22)
As new optical devices for increasing further the utility of and to expand the application of fiber-optic communications, grating multiplexers and isolators have been developed for 0.8 μm band employing microoptic approach. The development of these devices is the subject of this paper. The devices have desirable features of small size, compactness, high optical performances, and high reliability. The grating multiplexer consists of a graded-index rod, a blazed reflection grating replicated onto the graded-index rod slanting facet or a wedge facet, and an input-output fiber array. Simple calculations have been done to determine necessary element parameters for a given channel spacing. Experimental results are presented for five-channel multiplexers devised using a SELFOC®lens. Around 3 dB insertion loss and less than -30 dB crosstalk have been obtained for about 35 nm channel spacing in overall device size of 18 \times 13 \times 50 mm. Faraday rotation optical isolators for 0.8 μm band have been miniaturized by employing an efficient paramagnetic glass Faraday rotator, a magnet with a through hole and a folded optics in the Faraday rotator. The path number in the folded optics has been optimized in terms of trading-off between the magnet size and the insertion loss. A 0.9 dB insertion loss including fiber coupling loss and 36 dB isolation have been obtained in overall device size of 24 \times 24.5 \times 42 mm. Results on the temperature and wavelength dependence of the isolation are also presented. In addition, fundamental properties of optical circulators for 0.8 μm band and optical isolators and circulators both for 1.3 μm band, developed as extended modifications of the optical isolators for 0.8 μm band, are briefly described.